Studies on the phase transitions and properties of tungsten (VI) oxide nanoparticles by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis

Abstract

Tungsten (VI) oxide, WO3 nanoparticles were synthesized by colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) technique.  The resultant WO3 nanoparticles were characterized by thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in order to determine the phase transitions, the crystallinity and the size of the WO3 nanoparticles. As a comparison, transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to investigate the size of the WO3 nanoparticles.  The result from XRD and DTA show that the formation of  polymorphs WO3 nanoparticles have the following sequence: orthorhombic (bWO3) ® monoclinic (g-WO3) ® triclinic (d-WO3) ® monoclinic (e-WO3) with respect to the calcination temperature of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C.  No diffraction  peaks were found in the X-Ray diffraction measurements for the sample heat treated at 300°C (as-prepared), suggesting that an amorphous structure was  obtained at this temperature whereas the crystallinity had been obtained by the other samples of the WO3 nanoparticles at the calcination temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C.  It is also found that the X-Ray diffraction measurements produced an average diameter of (30 ± 5), (50 ± 5), (150 ± 10) and (200 ± 10) nm at calcination temperatures of 400, 500, 600 and 700°C respectively by using  Debye-Scherrer formula.  The TG curve revealed that the WO3 nanoparticles is purely anhydrous since the weight loss is insignificant (0.3 – 1.4) % from 30 until  600°C for the WO3 nanoparticles calcined at 400°C.  Finally, the composition and the purity of the WO3 nanoparticles have been examined by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).  The results indicate no significant changes to the composition and the purity of the WO3 nanoparticles produced due to the  temperature variations.                                             

https://doi.org/10.29037/ajstd.300
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