We introduce AIR, a new ant-based routing protocol for ad hoc wireless networks. AIR incorporates recent technology advances in ad hoc routing protocols, such as ring-based searching and third-party reply, while retaining the characteristics and benefits of ant-based routing protocols, including probabilistic routing tables and pheromone evaporation. In addition, we combine the best features of previous ant-based routing protocols with new features like update ants and two-way route establishment, to further improve performance. We compare the performance of AIR against AODV and DSR using appropriately chosen simulations, the results of which are presented and discussed. We find that AIR is especially useful for ad hoc networks requiring low end-to-end delay where mobility rates are high.
Perkins, C., Belding-Royer, C., and Das, S. (2003), Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV) Routing, IETF RFC, 3561, July.
Johnson, D., Maltz, D., and Hu, Y.-C. (2004), The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (DSR), IETF work in progress, July.
Di Caro, G. and Dorigo, M. (1998), AntNet: Distributed Sigmergetic Control for Communications Networks, Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, pp. 317-365.
Lee, S.J., Belding-Royer, E., and Perkins, C. (2003), Scalability Study of the Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing Protocol, ACM/Wiley International Journal of Network Management, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 97-114, March.
Caro, G.D. and Dorigo, M. (1998), Ant Colonies for Adaptive Routing in Packet-Switched Communications Networks”, 5th International Conference Parallel Problem Solving from Nature, Amsterdam, Holland, September.
Gunes, M., Sorges, U., and Bouazizi, I. (2002), ARA-The Ant-Colony Based Routing Algorithm for MANETs, Int’l Workshop on Ad Hoc Networking (IWAHN), Vancouver, Canada, August.
Rajagopalan, S., Jaikaeo, C., and Shen, C.C. (2003), Unicast Routing for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks with Swarm Intelligence, Technical Report #2003-07, University of Delaware, July.
Roth, M. and Wicker, S. (2003), Termite: Ad Hoc Networking with Stigmergy”, IEEE Globecom 2003, San Francisco, USA, December.
Beckers, R., Deneubourg, J.L., and Goss, S. (1992), Trails and U-turns in the selection of the shortest path by the ant Lasius niger, Journal of Theoretical Biology, pp. 397-415.
Bettstetter, C., Restar, G., and Santi, P. (2003), The Node Distribution of the Random Waypoint Mobility Model for Wireless Ad hoc Networks, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 257-269, July-September.
Stockburger, D. (1996), Introductory Statistics: Concepts, Models and Applications, RockHill Press.