N-carboxymethyl chitosan
N-dicarboxymethyl chitosan
N-carboxyethyl chitosan
N-carboxybutyl chitosan
N-trimethyl chitosan
5-methylpyrolidinone chitosan


Many water-solubleN-substituted chitosan derivatives have been prepared having the typical -NH-CH2- linkage. Both the Michael reaction and alkylation with monochloroacetic acid at pH 8- 8.5 offer relatively simple ways for their synthesis.


Le Dung, Ph., Dong, N.T., Mai, P.T., Binh, T., and Diem, C.V. (2001), Vinachitin, an artificial skin for wound healing, Chitin and chitosan in life Science. (Ed.) by T. Uragami, K. Kurita, T. Fukanizo. Kodanska Sci. Ltd., Tokyo Japan, p. 227.

Tamai, Y., Okamoto, Y., Takamoro, Y., and Minami, S. (2003), Enhanced healing of cartilaginous injuries by N-Acetyl D-Glucosamin, Carbohydrate Polymers,vol. 54, pp. 251-262.

Rinaudo, M., Le Dung, P., and Milas, M. (1992), Substituent distribution on O, N- CMC by 1H and 13C NMR,Inter. J. Biol. Macromol. vol 14, (1992), p. 122.

Rinaudo, M., Le Dung, P., and Milas, M., (1991), A new and simple method of synthesis of CMC, Advances in Chitin and Chitosan, (Ed.) by J. Brine, P.A Sandford S.P Zikakis Elsevier Applied Sciences, p.516.

Le Dung, P., Dong, N.T., and Mai, P.T. (2002), Chemical modification of chitosan via its decrystalization, Advances in Chitin Science, vol. 5, p.183 (Ed.) by P. Methacanon et al Bangkok (Thailand).

Pham Le Dung, Rinaudo, M., and Milas, M. (1994), J. Desbrières, Water soluble derivatives obtained by controled chemical modification of chitosan, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 24, p. 209.

N.T. Dong PhD. (2003), Ph. D. dissertation Institute of Chemistry, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Rinaudo, M., Desbrieres, J., Dung, P.L., Dong, N.T., and Binh, P.T. (2001), NMR investigation of chitosan derivatives formed by the reaction of chitosan with levulinic acid, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 46, pp. 339-348.

Muzzarelli, R.A.A., Ramos, V., Stanic, V., Dubini, B., and Giardino, R. (1998), Osteogenesis promoted by calcium phosphate N, Ndicarboxymethyl chitosan, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol.36, (1998), pp. 267-276

Thanou, M., Sieral, A.B., Kotzé, A.F., Verhoef, J.C., and Brussee, J. (1998), Preparation and characterization of highly substituted N-trimethyl chitosan chloride, Carbohydrate Polymers., vol. 36, pp. 157-168.

Thanou, M., Sieral, A.B., Kotzé, A.F., Verhoef, J.C., and Brussee, J. (1997), N-trimethyl chitosan chloride of high degree of substitution as a potential absorption enhancer for hydrophilic drugs, Advances in Chitin Sciences, (Ed.) by A. Domard, Lyon, France. vol. II, p. 384,

Snyman, Hamman, J.H., Kotze, J.S., Rollongs, J.E., and Kotze, A.F. (2002), The relationship between the absolute molecular weight and the degree of quaternization of N-Trimethyl chitosan chloride, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 50, pp. 145-150.

St Angelo H. J. and Vercellotti (1992) in Food Science and Human nutritions (Ed.) by G. Charalambons Elsevier Sci. London, p. 711.

Sashiwa, H., Yamamori, N., Ichinose, Y., Sunamoto, J., and Aiba, S. (2003), Micheal reaction of chitosan with acrylic acid in water, Macromol. Biosci. vol 3, pp. 231-233.

Le Dung, Ph., Dong, N.T., Mai, P.T., and Binh, T. (1998), N-Carboxybutylchitosan, synthesis and application, J. of Chemistry (Vietnamese), vol 36, p. 35.

Le Dung, Ph., Dong, N.T., Mai, P.T., and Binh, T. (2000), N-Carboxybutylchitosan. PIII, J. of Chemistry (Vietnamese), vol 38, p. 25.

Le Dung, Ph., Dong, N.T., Mai, P.T., and Son, T. (2000), 5- methylpyrrolidinonechitosan PII, J. of Chemistry (Vietnamese), vol 38, p. 15


Download data is not yet available.